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 Beans

 

Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for human food or animal feed.

bean.jpgAlthough "beans" usually means the seeds of bean plants, it can also mean (especially in the US) the whole young pods of bean plants, which if picked before the pods ripen and dry, can be tender enough to eat whole, whether cooked or raw. Thus the word "green beans" means "green" in the sense of unripe (many are in fact, not green in color), as the beans inside the pods of green beans are too small to comprise a significant part of the cooked fruit

The term "bean" originally referred to the seed of the broad bean, but was later expanded to include members of the genus Phaseolus, such as the common bean and the runner bean, and the related genus Vigna. The term is now applied in a general way to many other related plants such as soybeans, peas, lentils, kidney beans, chickpeas (garbanzos), vetches and lupins.

"Bean" can be used as a near-synonym of "pulse", an edible legume, though the term "pulses" is usually reserved for leguminous crops harvested for their dry grain and usually excludes crops mainly used for oil extraction (like soybeans and peanuts) or those used exclusively for sowing purposes (such as clover and alfalfa). Leguminous crops harvested green for food, such as snap peas, snow peas, etc., are classified as vegetable crops.

 Baked beans.jpg

In English usage, the word "beans" is also sometimes used to mean the seeds or pods of plants that are not in the family Leguminosae, but which bear a superficial resemblance to true beans, for example coffee beans, castor beans and cocoa beans (which resemble bean seeds), and vanilla beans (which resemble the pods).

 

Some kinds of raw beans and especially red and kidney beans, contain a harmful toxin (the lectin Phytohaemagglutinin) that must be destroyed by cooking. A recommended method is to boil the beans for at least ten minutes; undercooked beans may be more toxic than raw beans.[1] Cooking beans in a slow cooker, because of the lower temperatures often used, may not destroy toxins even though the beans do not smell or taste 'bad'[2] (though this should not be a problem if the food reaches boiling and stays there for some time).

 

Fermentation is used in some parts of Africa to improve the nutritional value of beans by removing toxins. Inexpensive fermentation improves the nutritional impact of flour from dry beans and improves digestibility.

 

Many edible beans, including broad beans and soybeans, contain oligosaccharides (particularly Raffinose and Stachyose), a type of sugar molecule also found in cabbage. An anti-oligosaccharide enzyme is necessary to properly digest these sugar molecules. As a normal human digestive tract does not contain any anti-oligosaccharide enzymes, consumed oligosaccharides are typically digested by bacteria in the large intestine. This digestion process produces flatulence-causing gases as a byproduct. This aspect of bean digestion is the basis for the children's rhyme "Beans, Beans, the Musical Fruit."

 

Some species of mold produce alpha-galactosidase, an anti-oligosaccharide enzyme, which humans can take to facilitate digestion of oligosaccharides in the small intestine. This enzyme, currently sold in the U.S. under the brand-name Beano, can be added to food or consumed separately. In many cuisines beans are cooked along with natural carminatives such as anise seeds, coriander seeds and cumin.

 

Other strategies include soaking beans in water for several hours before mixing them with other ingredients to remove the offending sugars. Sometimes vinegar is added, but only after the beans are cooked as vinegar interferes with the beans' softening.

 

Fermented beans will not produce most of the intestinal problems that unfermented beans will, since bacteria can consume the offending sugars.

 

Adzuki Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Adzuki%20small.JPG

Amethyst Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Amethyst%20small.JPG

Anasazi Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Anasazi%20small.JPG

Appaloosa Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Appaloosa%20small.JPG

Aurora Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Petite%20French%20small.JPG

Baby Borlotti Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Baby%20Borlotti%20small.JPG

Black-eyed Peas (Beans)

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Blackeyed%20small.JPG

Black Nightfall Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Balck%20Nightfall%20small.JPG

Black Turtle Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Black%20Turtle%20small.JPG

Black Valentine Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Black%20Valentine%20small.JPG

Borlotti Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Borlotti%20small.JPG

Bolita Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Bolita%20small.JPG

Brown Rice Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Brown%20Rice%20small.JPG

Butterscotch Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Butterscotch%20small.JPG

Red Calypso Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Red%20Calypso.JPG

Black Calypso Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Calypso%20small.JPG

 Chick Peas (Beans)

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Black%20Chick%20Peas%20small.JPG

China Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Persian%20Lima%20small.JPG

Cannellini Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Cannellllini%20small.JPG

Chana Dal Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Chana%20Dal%20Small.JPG

Christmas Lima Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Christmas%20Lima%20small.JPG

Cranberry Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/tongues%20of%20Fire%202%20small.JPG

Colorado River Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Red%20Nightfall%20small.JPG

Corona Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Tarbais%20small.JPG

Dapple Grey Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Dapple%20Grey%20Beans%20small.JPG

Dark Red Kidney Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Dark%20Kidney%20small.JPG

European Soldier Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/European%20samll.JPG

Eye of the Goat Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Ojo%20de%20Cabra%20small.JPG

Falcon Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Falcon%20small.JPG

Fava Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/FAva%20samll.JPG

Feijao Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Adzuki%20small.JPG

Flageolet Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Flageolet%20small.JPG

Flageolettes Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Green%20Rice%20small.JPG

Flor de Mayo Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Flor%20de%20Mayo%20small.JPG

French Navy Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/French%20Navy%20small.JPG

Frijoles Negro Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Black%20Turtle%20small.JPG

Garbanzo Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Garbanzo%20small.JPG

Gigandes Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Giant%20White%202%20small.JPG

Great Northern Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Great%20Northern%20small.JPG

Split Green Mung Dal Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/split%20green%20mung.jpg

Green Mung Dal Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Green%20mung%20small.JPG

Giant White Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Giant%20White%202%20small.JPG

Green Rice Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Green%20Rice%20small.JPG

Haba Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Hab%20small.JPG

Hija Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Giant%20White%20small.JPG

Horticulture Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Cranberry%20small.JPG

Hutterite Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Hutterite.JPG

Jackson Wonder Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Jackson%20Wonder%20small.JPG

Jacob's Cattle Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Trout%20small.JPG

Light Red Kidney Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Light%20red%20Kidney%20small.JPG

Lupini Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Lupini%20small.JPG

Maine Yellow Eye Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Main%20Yellow%20Eye%20beans%20small.JPG

Mark Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Scaret%20Runner%20small.JPG

Marrow Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Marrow%20small.JPG

Marrone Bell Peas (Beans)

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Marrone%20Bell%20Peas%20small.JPG

Mayflower Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Red%20Nightfall%20small.JPG

 

Moccasin Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Moccasin%20small.JPG

Monk Peas

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Monk%20Pea%20small.JPG

Mortgage Lifter Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/White%20Aztec%20small.JPG

Red Nightfall Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Red%20Nightfall%20small.JPG

Orca Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Orca%20oval%20small.JPG

Ojo de Cabra Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Ojo%20de%20Cabra%20small.JPG

Painted Pony Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Painted%20Pony%20Small.JPG

Paris Bistro Soup Mix

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Paris%20Bistro%20small.JPG

Petite French Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Petite%20French%20small.JPG

Persian Lima Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Persian%20Lima%20small.JPG

Peruano Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Peruano%20small.JPG

Pebble Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Pebble%20small.JPG

Pink Pearl Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Pink%20Pearl%20small.JPG

Pinto Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Pinto%20small.JPG

Peas Green (whole)

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Peas%20whole%20Green.jpg

Pigeon Peas (Beans)

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Pigeon%20Peas%20small.JPG

Poquito Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Poquito%20small.JPG

Pueblo Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/White%20Aztec%20small.JPG

Raisin Peas

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Monk%20Pea%20small.JPG

Raquel Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Raquel%20small.JPG

Rattlesnake Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Rattlesnake%20small.JPG

Red Pearl Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Red%20Pearl%20small.JPG

Rice Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Rice%20small.JPG

Rio Zappe Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Rio%20Zappe%20small.JPG

Runner Cannellini Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Tarbais%20small.JPG

Scarlet Emperor Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Scaret%20Runner%20small.JPG

Snowcap Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Snocap%20small.JPG

Soy Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Soya%20small.JPG

Spanish Tolosna Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Spanish%20Tolosna%20small.JPG

Swedish Brown Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Swedish%20Brown%20small.JPG

Scarlet Runner Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Scaret%20Runner%20small.JPG

Yellow Eye Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Butterscotch%20small.JPG

White Runner Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Emergo%20small.JPG

Tarbais Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Tarbais%20small.JPG

Tepary Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Tepary%20samll.JPG

Tiger Eye Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Tiger%20eye%20small.JPG

Tongues of Fire Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Tongues%20of%20Fire%20small.JPG

Trout Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Trout%20small.JPG

Vermont Appaloosa Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Appaloosa%20small.JPG

White Baby Lima Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Baby%20lima%20small.JPG

White Aztec Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/White%20Aztec%20small.JPG

White Emergo Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Emergo%20small.JPG

White Kidney Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Cannellllini%20small.JPG

White Marble Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Marrow%20small.JPG

Yellow Indian Woman Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Swedish%20Brown%20small.JPG

Yellow Mung Dal Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Yellow%20Mung%20Dal%20small.JPG

Ying-Yang Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Calypso%20small.JPG

Zuni Gold Beans

http://www.purcellmountainfarms.com/Raquel%20small.JPG