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a

 

Abalone - A univalve mollusc also known as Ormer or Sea Ear, which can be found along the coasts of the Channel Islands. The edible portion is the adductor muscle (foot) by which it clings to rocks. The flesh is tough but well flavoured so tenderising is essential - it can then be eaten raw or slowly stewed.

 

Ahi - A type of tuna that can reach about 150kg in weight. They have pale pink flesh that is relatively mild. Also called Yellowfin tuna.

 

Aida - A way of serving flatfish fillets similar to Florentine but with the addition of paprika to Mornay sauce and spinach.

 

Aku - This small tuna (3-4kg) has a light-coloured meat similar to Yellowfin. The Japanese call this fish Katsuo.  Also known as Arctic Bonito

 

Akule - Normally served salted and dried. Also known as Bigeye Scad.

 

Alaskan Cod - This sea fish is not a true cod. It has soft textured flesh and a mild flavour. Its high fat content makes it a good fish for smoking. Also called Alaskan cod, Black Cod, Butterfish, and Skil, although it is neither a cod nor a butterfish!

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Albacore - A highly prized, mild-flavoured tuna that weighs between 10 and 60 pounds. This high-fat fish is the only tuna that can honestly be called white. It is the most expensive variety of canned tuna.

 

Alewife - One of the most popular members of the herring family, the alewife is anadromous (it spawns in fresh water). This fish provides high-fat flesh with a fine, soft, texture.

 

Alligator - A large aquatic reptile that grows up to 19 feet in length. The meat is now more widely available than in past through frozen meat suppliers. The meat ranges from white to dark-mild to strongly flavoured.

 

Amberjack - A lean, mild fish found along the South Atlantic coast. Difficult to find in markets; usually sold whole.

 

Anchovy - There are many species of small, silvery fish known as anchovies, but the true anchovy comes from the Mediterranean and southern European coastlines. Anchovies are delicious fresh, often filleted, salt-cured, and canned in oil. Used sparingly to flavour foods. To fillet an anchovy, run the thumbnail from head to tail on both sides of the spine.

 

Angler Fish - This large low-fat, firm-textured salt-water fish has a mild, sweet flavour that compares with lobster. Sometimes referred to as poor man's lobster.  Also called Monkfish, Lotte, Belly-Fish, Frogfish, Sea Devil and Goosefish.

 

Arctic Bonito - This small tuna (3-4kg) has a light-coloured meat similar to yellowfin. The Japanese call this fish katsuo and the Hawaiians call it aku.

 

Arctic Char - The Arctic char is distributed throughout the Polar Regions and is the most northerly distributed of Char family, it is often sold smoked and is now commonly found on restaurant menus.

 

Awa - An important food fish of the Indo-Pacific region that offers a tender, white flesh. Hawaiians use Awa for making fish cakes and sashimi. Also called Milkfish.

 

 

 

b

 

Bacalao - Most salt cod comes from Norway. When choosing look for white flesh and black skin - yellowing flesh denotes age. The fish needs to be soaked for 24-48 hours before use, frequently changing the water to remove most of the salt. It is then ready to be poached - never boil salt cod otherwise it will go stringy. Popular in Spain, the fish is often cooked with chilli and red pepper. Try adding to soups as part of the seasoning as well as being fish.

 

Barracuda - A pike-like sea fish with long pointed jaws filled with razor-sharp teeth. It is a firm-textured fish with moderate fat content.

 

Bass - Also known as Sea Perch, Bass is a term that refers to numerous and often unrelated freshwater and saltwater fish. The Bass family includes Groupers, Black Sea Bass, and the Striped Bass.

 

Belly-Fish - This large low-fat, firm-textured salt-water fish has a mild, sweet flavour that compares with lobster. Sometimes referred to as poor man's lobster. Also called Angler fish, Monkfish, Lotte, Frogfish, Sea Devil and Goosefish.


Bigeye Scad- The fat tuna, known as Mebachi to the Japanese, this cousin of the Bluefin is becoming more popular as the number of Bluefin decrease.

 

Black Cod - This saltwater fish, which is not a true cod, has a soft textured flesh and a mild flavour. Its high fat content makes it a good fish for smoking. Also called Alaskan Cod, Sablefish, Butterfish, and Skil, although it is neither a Cod nor a Butterfish!

 

Blackfish - A lean, delicately flavoured Pacific Ocean fish that is popular in Chinese cookery. Also called Black Trout and Chinese Steelhead.

 

Black Sea Bass - The Bass family includes Bass, Groupers and the Striped Bass.

 

Black Trout – A lean, delicately flavoured Pacific Ocean fish that is popular in Chinese cookery. Also called Blackfish and Chinese Steelhead.

 

Blue Crab - Named after its blue claws and dark blue-green shell, this crab is found along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. It is sold in both its soft and hard-shell stages. The "soft-shell crab" is simply a blue crab caught just after moulting.

 

Bluefin Tuna - The best and among the largest of tuna, the bluefin can weigh over 500kg. As Bluefin age, their flesh turns from light to dark red and take on a stronger flavour. It is now considered the finest of all fish that can be served raw as sushi and sashimi. Its numbers are now declining dangerously as it is much sought after.

 

Bluefish - A fatty, fine-textured fish that is also known as Bulldog of the Ocean because of its tenacity. Found in the Atlantic. Discard the dark oily strip that runs down its centre to prevent a strong, fishy flavour.

 

Bluegill – Freshwater fish closely related to the Perch. Known for their bright, sunny colours. Bluegill are also known as Crappie, and Calico Bass, commonly called Sunnies.

 

Bombay duck - A small, semi-transparent fish that is found in the Arabian Sea off the west coast of India. They can be eaten fresh, but more commonly, they are sun-dried and often have asafoetida added to them. Also known as Bumalo or Bummalow, it has a very strong and salty fish taste. It will keep a long time, providing it is kept dry and is usually eaten having been grilled, baked or shallow fried until crispy and then be crumbled over rice and curries, and is sometimes served as a starter or cocktail snack.

 

Bonito - Half way between a Mackerel and a Tuna, Bonito is the smallest of the tuna family, rarely weighing over 12kg. They range from moderate to high fat and are the most strongly flavoured of the Tunas. Many Japanese recipes call for dried bonito (dashi).

 

Buffalo Fish - This freshwater fish, which belongs to the Sucker family, is similar to Carp. It offers a coarse but sweet, low-fat flesh that lends itself to a variety of cooking methods.

 

Bulldog of the Ocean - A fatty, fine-textured fish that is also known as Bluefish. Found in the Atlantic. Discard the dark oily strip that runs down its centre to prevent a strong, fishy flavour.

 

Bullhead - A small (<500g), freshwater catfish. Its flesh is lean and mild in flavour.

 

Bummalo- A small, semi-transparent, fish that is found in the Arabian Sea off the west coast of India. They can be eaten fresh, but more commonly, they are sun-dried and often have asafoetida added to them. Also known as Bombay Duck or Bummalow, it has a very strong and salty fish taste. It will keep a long time, providing it is kept dry and is usually eaten having been grilled, baked or shallow fried until crispy and then be crumbled over rice and curries, and is sometimes served as a starter or cocktail snack.

 

Burbot - A freshwater Cod with a lean white flesh and a delicate flavour. It is normally poached, baked, broiled or sautéed.

 

Butterfish - This small, high-fat fish has a tender texture and a rich, sweet flavour. Also called the Dollarfish, Pacific Pompano, and Pomfret.

 

 

 

c

 

Calamari - This ten-armed cephalopod, commonly known as Squid, is related to the Octopus and the Cuttlefish.. They vary in size from 1 inch to 80 feet in length. The meat is firm with a sweet flavour. Over-cooking can lead to a rubbery texture.

 

Calico Bass - Freshwater fish closely related to the Perch. Known for their bright, sunny colours. Calico Bass are also known as Crappie, and Bluegill, commonly called Sunnies.

 

California Sheep Head - A saltwater fish belonging to the Wrasse family. Also called Sheepshead,  Fathead, and Redhead. Its meat is white, tender, and lean.

 

Candlefish - A rich and oily mild-flavoured fish. This variety of Smelt is so named because Indians sometimes run a wick through their high-fat flesh and use them for candles. Also known as the Eulachon.

 

Carp - This freshwater fish ranges from 1 – 3kg and has a lean white flesh. It is the primary ingredient for the Jewish dish called gefilte fish.

 

Catfish - This fish is firm, low in fat, and has a mild flavour. Most catfish are fresh water varieties, but there is a salt water variety that called the Hogfish. The Channel Catfish is considered the best for eating.

 

Chikuwa - A variety of Japanese fish paste cake.

 

Chinook Salmon - Considered the finest Pacific Salmon. This high-fat, soft textured fish can reach up to 60kg. Also called the King Salmon.

 

Chinese Steelhead - A lean, delicately flavoured Pacific Ocean fish that is popular in Chinese cookery. Also called Black Trout and Blackfish.

 

Chub – Freshwater fish - May be prepared in any manner suitable for salmon.

 

Chum Salmon – This is the smallest and most delicately flavoured of the Salmons. It has the lightest colour and the lowest fat content of the various Salmon varieties. Also called the Dog Salmon.

 

Clam - These bivalve molluscs come in two varieties. Hard-shell clams include Littleneck, Cherrystone, and Chowder Clams. The soft-shelled Clams, such as Steamer, Razor, and Geoduck Clams, have thin brittle shells that can't completely close.

 

Coalfish - This low to moderate fat fish has firm, white, flesh with a delicate, somewhat sweet flavour. It is often used to make imitation crab meat. Also known as Pollack or Saithe, this saltwater fish is a member of the Cod family.

 

Cod - A popular lean, firm, white meat fish from the Pacific and the North Atlantic. Scrod is the name for young Cod (and Haddock) that weight less than 1kg. Haddock, Hake, and Pollock are close relatives of the Cod.

 

Coho Salmon - This high-fat variety of salmon provides a firm-textured, pink to orange-red flesh. Also called the Silver Salmon.


Colbert –
A fish presentation cut where the backbone and fins are removed leaving the fillets attached to the head usually either Sole or Whiting.

Colère
- Is French for “angry” and is where the fish is skinned, eyes, gills and fins removed, it is panéed and the tail bent around into the mouth.  This is usually associated with Whiting.

 

Crab - Any of a large variety of 10-legged crustaceans (shelled animals). There are freshwater and salt water varieties. It is the second most popular shellfish. (Prawn/Shrimp is the most popular.)

 

Crappie - Freshwater fish closely related to the Perch. Known for their bright, sunny colours. Crappies are also known as Calico Bass, and Bluegill, commonly called Sunnies.

 

Crayfish - Also called Crawfish. Crayfish are freshwater crustaceans that look like tiny lobsters and can be prepared in any manner appropriate to a lobster.

 

Croaker - Any of a variety of fish named for the peculiar drumming or deep croaking noise they make. These fish are firm and low in fat. The Croaker family includes the Black Croaker, Black Drum, Hardhead, Kingfish, and Redfish.

 

Cusk - A large saltwater fish related to the Cod. It has a firm, lean flesh. Also called Tusk or Torsk.

 

Cuttlefish - A relative of the squid and octopus, the cuttlefish has ten arms that can reach up to 16 inches in length. Sarume, which is available in ethnic stores, is cuttlefish that has been seasoned and roasted.

 

 

d

 

 

Dab - This flatfish is variety of Flounder that features a sweet, firm flesh.

 

Dashi – Japanese ingredient made of the dried flesh of the Bonito fish.

 

Dog Salmon - This is the smallest and most delicately flavoured of the Salmons. It has the lightest colour and the lowest fat content of the various Salmon varieties. Also called the Chum Salmon.

 

Dollarfish - This small, high-fat fish has a tender texture and a rich, sweet flavour. Also called the Butterfish, Pacific Pompano, and Pomfret.

 

Dolphin Fish - Also called Mahi Mahi and Dorado. Although this fish is a Dolphin, it is not a mammal. This fish is moderately fat with firm, flavourful flesh.

 

Drum - Any of a variety of fish named for the drumming or deep croaking noise they make. These fish are firm and low in fat. The drum family include the Black Croaker, Black Drum, Hardhead, Kingfish, and Queenfish.

 

 

e

 

Eel - A long snake-like fish with smooth scale-less skin and a rich, sweet, and firm flesh. Eels, which are considered a fatty fish, are very popular in Europe and Japan.

 

En Lorgette – The fish is filleted leaving the fillets attached to head and then each fillet is rolled towards the head - usually associated with Whiting.

 

Eulachon - A rich and oily mild-flavoured fish. This variety of Smelt is so named because Indians sometimes run a wick through their high-fat flesh and use them for candles. Also known as the Candlefish.

 

European Turbot - A highly prized flatfish found in European waters. This fish has a lean, firm white flesh and a mild flavour. Turbot is also the market name for several varieties of Flounder fished from Pacific waters.

 

f

Fathead - A saltwater fish belonging to the Wrasse family. Also called Sheepshead, California Sheep Head, and Redhead. Its meat is white, tender, and lean.

 

Finnan Haddie - A world-famous smoked Haddock from Scotland.

 

Flatfish - Fish that have a flat body with both eyes located on the upper side. Flatfish swim "sideways" and include Flounder, Halibut and Sole.

 

Flounder - A fine-textured flatfish prized for its delicate flavour. Some of the more popular varieties include Dab, Dover Sole and Plaice.

 

Flying Fish - This fish, a delicacy in the West Indies and Japan, gains speed underwater then leaves the water except for the lower lobe of its tail. It then vigorously beats its tail, extends its ventral fins and can fly a 1,000 feet or more.

 

Frog's Legs - Like snails frog legs are usually categorised with seafood -they are the tender, faintly sweet white meat from the hind legs of frogs. Because of their mild taste, they should be cooked quickly and without and overpowering flavourings.

 

Frogfish - This large low-fat, firm-textured salt-water fish has a mild, sweet flavour that compares with lobster. Also called Angler fish, Monkfish, Lotte, Belly-Fish, Sea Devil and Goose fish.

 

 

 

g

 

 

 

 

Gefilte Fish - This popular Jewish dish consists of ground fish mixed with eggs, matzo meal, and seasonings that have been formed into balls or patties then simmered in vegetable or fish stock. The fish used is usually Carp, Pike, or Whitefish.

 

Goatfish - So named because of its two long "whiskers" that resemble a goat's whiskers. The meat is firm and lean. This fish is normally only available frozen.

 

Goosefish - This large low-fat, firm-textured salt-water fish has a mild, sweet flavour that compares with lobster. Also called Angler fish, Monkfish, Lotte, Belly-Fish, Frogfish and Sea Devil.

 

Grouper - This true Sea Bass, found in the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic, has a lean firm flesh. Its skin has a strong flavour and should be removed prior to cooking. Groupers have the ability to change to the colour of their surroundings. The Bass family includes Black Sea Bass, and the Striped Bass.

 

 

h

 

 

 

Haddock - A North Atlantic fish, the smaller cousin to the Cod. The Haddock has firm white flesh that is mild in flavour. Smoked Haddock is called "Finnan”.

 

Hake - This low-fat saltwater fish, related to the Cod, is found in the Atlantic and North Pacific. It's flesh features a white, delicate flavour.

 

Halibut - A low-fat, firm white and mild-flavoured fish from the flatfish family. Resembles a gigantic Flounder. Chicken Halibuts weigh up to 5kg and are considered the finest Halibut.

 

Herring - A small salt-water fish related to the Shad, Alewife, Sardine, and the freshwater Cisco. Herring is often pickled, smoked, and dressed in numerous sauces.

 

Hogfish – This is a salt water variety of Catfish. This fish is firm, low in fat, and has a mild flavour.

 

Hoki - A white fish resembling Hake quite bland in flavour and relatively bone free.  It can be fried, baked and poached and goes well with a rich sauce. It is fished in large quantities off New Zealand and is mainly exported.

 

Humpback Salmon - A lower fat variety of salmon. Also called the Pink Salmon.

 

 

 

i

 

 

 

j

 

 

 

k

 

Kamoboko - A variety of Japanese fish paste cake.

 

Katsuo - This small tuna (3-4kg) has a light-coloured meat similar to Yellowfin. The Hawaiians call it aku.

 

King Crab - A giant crab that can grow up to 10 feet, claw-to-claw. It has snowy white meat edged in red. Because their numbers are rapidly decreasing, the catch is rigidly quota-controlled.

 

King Salmon - Considered the finest Pacific Salmon. This high-fat, soft textured fish can reach up to 60kg. Also called the Chinook Salmon.

 

Kingfish - Any of several varieties of Drum found along the Atlantic coast.

 

Kippers - A Herring that is split, cured by salting, drying, and cold-smoking. There are many varieties of Kippers for example the delicate and small Manx Kipper from the Isle of Man

 

l

 

Laver bread - Welsh method of preparing and serving purple seaweed Porphyra umbilicalis or Porphyra laciniata. Also known as Nori this a brown looking seaweed which is fine and silky it was traditionally served mixed with a little oatmeal and fried in bacon or fat. Often dried first then soaked and washed thoroughly, wrung dry, then boiled in seawater for several hours, sometimes with a little vinegar. It is then drained and minced, it is black in appearance.

 

Langostino - The Spanish word for Prawns.

 

Lobster - This crustacean was used as bait until around 1880. Dead Lobsters spoil quickly, they should be cooked live if possible. (Live lobsters curl their tails under when picked up.) Look for curled tails on precooked Lobsters.

 

Lotte - This large low-fat, firm-textured salt-water fish has a mild, sweet flavour that compares with lobster. Sometimes referred to as poor man's lobster. Also called Angler fish, Monkfish, Belly-Fish, Frogfish, Sea Devil and Goosefish.

 

m

 

 

Mackerel - A long, slender saltwater fish. The flesh is firm and fatty, with a distinctive savoury flavour. The most popular Mackerel is the King Mackerel, also known as the Kingfish.

 

Mahi Mahi - Also called Dolphin fish. Although this fish is a Dolphin, it is not a mammal. This fish is moderately fat with firm, flavourful flesh.

 

Mebachi – A member of the Tuna family which is a cousin of the Bluefin and is becoming more popular as the number of Bluefin decrease.

 

Milkfish - An important food fish of the Indo-Pacific region that offers a tender, white flesh. Hawaiians use Awa for making fish cakes and sashimi. Also called Milkfish.

 

Mollusc - A soft bodied animal usually with a shell: either one shell (known as uni-valve) or two shells (known as gastropods or bi-valve) or no shell (known as cephalopods)

 

Monkfish - This large low-fat, firm-textured salt-water fish has a mild, sweet flavour similar to lobster. Sometimes referred to as poor man's lobster. Also called Angler, Lotte, Belly-Fish, Frogfish, Sea Devil and Goosefish.

 

Moochim - A Korean-style dried fish with soy sauce.

 

Mullet - This term is used to describe several families of important food fish. In general, they are saltwater fish with a moderate to high fat content and flesh that is tender, white, and firm textured. They have a sweet, nut-like flavour.

 

Muskellunge - A freshwater Pike that averages between 5 -15kg. Some specimens however have reached 30kg and up to six feet in length. Muskellunge offers a lean, firm, low-fat flesh.

 

Mussel - A popular bivalve mollusc with worldwide distribution. There are salt and freshwater varieties. The thin shell means there is more meat compared to the same weight of Clams or Oysters. The yellow meat has a sweet and delicate flavour.

 

Muttonfish - A marine fish of the Eelpout family found mainly in the Pacific. The flesh is sweet and white and contains very few bones. Also called Ocean Pout.

 

n

 

Norway Haddock - This important commercial fish is a member of the Rockfish group. Also known as Ocean Perch, although it is not a true Perch.

 

o

 

Ocean Pout - A marine fish of the Eelpout family found mainly in the Pacific. The flesh is sweet and white and contains very few bones. Sometimes called a Muttonfish.

 

Ocean Perch - This important commercial fish is not a true Perch, but is rather a member of the Rockfish group. Also known as Sea Perch.

 

Oceanic Bonito - This small tuna (3 - 4kg) has a light-coloured meat similar to Yellowfin.

 

Octopus - This cephalopod, related to the Squid and the Cuttlefish, can reach 50 feet in length. It features a highly flavourful meat that tends to be a bit on the rubbery side. Octopus is eaten raw, boiled, pickled, sautéed, and fried.

 

Orange Roughy - A New Zealand area fish with lean, white flesh that is firm and mild. Also called Slimeheads (by fishermen--not by fish vendors). This popular fish can be poached, baked, broiled, or fried.

 

Ormer - A univalve mollusc also known as Abalone or Sea Ear, which can be found along the coasts of the Channel Islands. The edible portion is the adductor muscle (foot) by which it clings to rocks. The flesh is tough but well flavoured so tenderising is essential - it can then be eaten raw or slowly stewed.

 

 

Oyster - A bivalve mollusc with a rough grey shell. The flesh varies from creamy beige to pale grey; the flavour from salty to bland; the texture from tender to firm. The Atlantic Oysters otherwise known as Natives are considered superior to Pacific or Rock (Portuguese) Oyster varieties, though a lot depends on how the Oyster was cultivated in an estuary, open sea or hatchery. Each location will give a particular flavour. The age and feeding of the Oyster will determine size and texture.

 

p

 

 

Parrot Fish - Any of various chiefly tropical marine fish, especially those of the family Scaridae. These fish are called parrot fish because of the brilliant colouring and the shape of their jaws. Also called Pollyfish.

 

Pacific Pompano - This small, high-fat fish has a tender texture and a rich, sweet flavour. Also called the Dollarfish, Butterfish, and Pomfret.

 

Perch - Any number of spiny-finned freshwater fish found in across Europe. Perch have a mild, firm, low-fat flesh. The saltwater White Perch and Ocean Perch are not true Perches.

 

Pickerel - A small (1-2kg) variety of the freshwater Pike. Pickerel are known for their lean, firm flesh.

 

Pike - A family of fish that includes the Pike, Pickerel, and the Muskellunge. These freshwater fish have long bodies, pointed heads, vicious teeth, and provide a lean, firm, bony flesh. Used in French quenelles and the Jewish gefilte fish.

 

Pink Salmon - A lower fat variety of salmon. Also called the Humpback Salmon.

 

Plaice - A mild flavoured flatfish distinguishable by its orange spots. Prepared and cooked as Sole.

 

Pollack - This low to moderate fat fish has firm, white, flesh with a delicate, somewhat sweet flavour. Pollack is often used to make imitation crab meat. Also known as Coalfish or Saithe, this saltwater fish is a member of the Cod family.

 

Pollyfish - Any of various chiefly tropical marine fish, especially those of the family Scaridae. These fish are also called Parrot fish because of the brilliant colouring and the shape of their jaws.

 

Pomfret - This small, high-fat fish has a tender texture and a rich, sweet flavour. Also called the Dollarfish, Butterfish, and Pacific Pompano.

 

Pompano - This saltwater fish is a succulent, fine-textured fish with a mild delicate flavour. This expensive, moderately fat fish is considered by many experts as one of the finest fish.

 

Porgy - Also know as Scup or Porgie. These saltwater fish are generally lean, and coarse-grained. Often grilled, poached, and pan-fried

 

 

q

 

 

r

 

 

Ray - This kite-shaped flat fish has edible fins. The flesh is firm, white, and sweet; similar to the texture and taste of scallop.

 

Red Snapper - This is the most popular of a few hundred species of Snapper. It is a firm-textured saltwater fish. Some species of Rockfish and Tilefish are also called snappers, but are not.

 

Red Perch - This important commercial fish is a member of the Rockfish group. Also known as Ocean Perch, although it is not a true Perch.

 

Redeye Salmon - Prized for canning, the Redeye Salmon has a firm, red flesh. Also known as the Sockeye Salmon.

 

Redfish - This important commercial fish is a member of the rockfish group. Also known as Ocean Perch, although it is not a true Perch.

 

Redhead - A saltwater fish belonging to the Wrasse family. Also called Sheepshead, California Sheep Head, and Fathead. Its meat is white, tender, and lean.

 

Roe - A seafood delicacy with two varieties: Hard roe is the female fish's eggs. Soft roe (also called white roe) is the milt (male reproductive glands filled with seminal fluid) of the male fish. Salted roe is called Caviar.

 

Rosefish - This important commercial fish is a member of the Rockfish group. Also known as Ocean Perch, although it is not a true Perch.

 

s

 

Sablefish - This sea fish has soft-textured flesh and a mild flavour. Its high fat content makes it a good fish for smoking. Also called Alaskan Cod, Black Cod, Butterfish, and Skil, although it is neither a Cod nor a Butterfish!

 

Saithe - This low to moderate fat fish has firm, white, flesh with a delicate, somewhat sweet flavour. It is often used to make imitation crab meat. Also known as Coalfish or Pollack, this saltwater fish is a member of the Cod family.

 

Salmon - To many, Salmon is the king of fish. A large, migratory, round, oily fish living mainly in the sea but spawning in fresh water. It is characterised by its orangey/pink flesh. Now bred in vast numbers in captivity, salmon varies in price considerably. Wild salmon is more expensive and better favoured and does not contain the chemical food additives that farmed Salmon are usually fed. Best eaten under three years of age. Salmon is prepared whole or cut into darnes, suprêmes, or slices

 

Sarume -  Available in ethnic stores, it is  Cuttlefish that has been seasoned and roasted.

 

Sardine - The name describing several varieties of weak-boned fish including the Alewife, French Sardine, Herring, and Sprat. Named after the island of Sardinia. Often salted, smoked, or canned and packed in oil, tomato, or mustard sauce.

 

Scallop - A bivalve mollusc with a ribbed, fan-shaped shell. The Bay Scallop is smaller, sweeter and a bit more succulent that their deep sea counterparts.

 

Scampi - The Italian name for the tail portion of any of several varieties of miniature lobsters.

 

Scrod - Scrod is the name for young Cod (and Haddock) that weight less that 1kg. It is a popular fish from the Pacific and the North Atlantic with a lean, firm, white flesh. Haddock, Hake and Pollock are close relatives of the Cod

 

Scup - Also know as Porgie or Sea Bream. These fish are generally lean, and coarse-grained. Scup is often grilled, poached, and pan-fried.

 

Sea Ear - A univalve mollusc also known as Ormer or Abalone, which can be found along the coasts of the Channel Islands. The edible portion is the adductor muscle (foot) by which it clings to rocks. The flesh is tough but well flavoured so tenderising is essential - it can then be eaten raw or slowly stewed.

 

Sea Trout - Similar to Salmon in colour, Sea Trout live off crustaceans and have the best flavour of all Trout. An anadromous (spawns in fresh water) type of brown trout they spend part to their life cycle in the sea. Sea Trout are prepared in the same way as Salmon.

 

Sea Perch - This important commercial fish is a member of the Rockfish group. Also known as Ocean Perch although it is not a true Perch.

 

Sea Devil - This large low-fat, firm-textured salt-water fish has a mild, sweet flavour that compares with Lobster. Also called Angler fish, Monkfish and Goosefish.

 

Sea Bream - Also know as Scup. These marine fish are generally lean, and coarse-grained. Sea Bream is often grilled, poached, and pan-fried.

 

Sea Bass - A term used to describe a number of lean to moderately fat marine fish, most of which aren't actually members of the bass family. Striped Bass and Black Sea Bass are true Bass. The White Sea Bass is a member of the Drum family.

 

Sewin – A Sea Trout.

 

Shad - Small, delicate saltwater fish related to the Alewife, Herring, and Sardine. They are larger than Herrings and spawn in fresh water. Some species of Shad have been landlocked and live in freshwater lakes.

 

Shark - A flavourful, low-fat fish that includes varieties such as Leopard, Mako, Spiny Dogfish, Soupfin and Thresher. Shark meat tends to have an ammonia-like smell that can be eliminated by soaking the flesh in milk or acidulated water.

 

Sheepshead - A saltwater fish belonging to the Wrasse family. Also called California Sheep Head, Fathead, and Redhead. Its meat is white, tender, and lean.

 

Shrimp - This ten-legged crustacean got its name from English word "shrimpe," which means "puny person." Smaller species of what are commonly called Prawns.

 

Silver Salmon - This high-fat variety of salmon provides a firm-textured, pink to orange-red flesh. Also called the Coho Salmon.

Silver Hake - A small grey and white saltwater fish that is also called Whiting. This low-fat fish, which is related to both the Cod and the Hake, has a tender white fine-textured flesh and a flaky, delicate flavour.

 

Skate - This kite-shaped fish features edible fins. The flesh is firm, white, and sweet, similar to the texture and taste of Scallop.

 

Skil - This saltwater fish has a soft-textured flesh and a mild flavour. Its high fat content makes it a good fish for smoking. Also known as Black Cod and Sablefish, although it is not a Cod!

 

Skipjack Tuna - Also called the Oceanic Bonito, Watermelon, and Arctic Bonito, this small tuna (3-4kg) has a light-coloured meat similar to Yellowfin. The Japanese call this fish Katsuo and the Hawaiians call it Aku.

 

Smelt - A rich and oily mild-flavoured fish. Popular varieties of smelt include Eulachon and Whitebait. The Eulachon is called the Candlefish because Indians sometimes run a wick through their high-fat flesh and use them for candles.

 

Snail - Often categorised with shellfish, eaten since prehistoric times, the snail was associated mainly with French cookery but is now widespread.

 

Snapper - There are a few hundred species of this lean, firm-textured saltwater fish. The most popular snapper is the Red Snapper.  Some species of Rockfish and Tilefish are called snappers, but are not.

 

Sockeye Salmon - Prized for canning, the Sockeye Salmon has a firm, red flesh. Also known as the Redeye Salmon.

 

Softshell Crab - The "soft-shell crab" is actually the Blue Crab caught just after moulting (discarding its shell). This crab is found along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. It is sold in both its soft and hard-shell stages.

 

Sole - A popular flatfish with a delicate flesh with a firm, fine texture. The best-known variety is Dover Sole. Much of what is sold as "sole" is actually a variety of Flounder, which isn't a true Sole.

 

Spot - A small fish (approximately 1kg) belonging to the Drum family.

 

Squid - This ten-armed cephalopod is also know as Calamari, related to the Octopus and the Cuttlefish. Squid varies in size from 1 inch to 80 feet in length. The meat is firm with a sweet flavour. Over-cooking can lead to a rubbery texture.

 

Striped Bass - This true Bass is found along the Atlantic coast. It features six to eight horizontal stripes and provides a moderately fat, firm flesh with a mild, sweet flavour. The Bass family includes Bass, Groupers and Black Sea Bass.

 

Sturgeon - A name for various migratory species of fish know for their rich, high-fat flavour, firm texture, and excellent roe. Their average weight is 30kg, but one freshwater Beluga Sturgeon was 26 feet long and weighed 1600kg.

 

Sucker - A name popularly applied to various types of freshwater fish closely related to Carp. Suckers live and feed near the bottoms of streams. They may be cooked in any way appropriate for other fish.

 

Sunfish – One of any number of freshwater fish closely related to the Perch. Known for their bright, sunny colours and interesting shapes, popular varieties include Bluegill, Crappie, and Calico Bass, commonly called Sunnies.

Surimi - Imitation crab meat processed from fish. (Ocean Stix)

 

Swordfish - A saltwater food and sport fish with mild-flavoured, moderately fat flesh. The flesh is red, dense, and meat-like. Thanks to its firmness, Swordfish can be prepared by baking, broiling, grilling, poaching, or sautéing.

 

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Tarpon - A large, powerful game fish from the warmer waters of the Atlantic Ocean.

 

Terrapin - This eight-inch long freshwater turtle is considered by many to have the best meat among turtles. Its flesh is often pounded and served like steak.

 

Tilefish - This low-fat Atlantic fish is delicately flavoured and has a flesh that is firm yet tender. Available fresh and frozen, in steaks and fillets. Suitable for just about any cooking method.

 

Torsk - A large saltwater fish related to the Cod. It has a firm, lean flesh. Also called Cusk or Torsk

 

Trout - A delicately flavoured fish that belongs to the same family as Salmon and Whitefish. Most are freshwater, but some are marine (Sea Trout). The very popular Rainbow Trout has been introduced around the world.

 

Tuna - A large saltwater fish related to the Mackerel. Probably the most popular fish used in canning today. Tunas have a distinctive red myoglobin rich flesh that is moderately high in fat and has a firmly textured flaky but tender flesh. There are several varieties the Blue-fin being the most expensive and generally considered the best others include Albacore, Bigeye, Skipjack, Yellowfin and Bonito. Tuna is usually sold ready cut and filleted and you should allow approximately 175g per person. Tuna becomes dry when overcooked so treat it like steak and ensure it is very, very fresh, avoid brown looking, or fillets that are falling apart or with an oily sheen.

 

Turbot - A flatfish with a lean, firm white flesh and a mild flavour. Turbot is also the market name for several varieties of Flounder .

 

Turtle - Any of several varieties of shelled reptiles that live on land, in freshwater, or in the sea. Turtles can weigh over 500kg. Sea or Green Turtles are best known as food.

 

Tusk - A large saltwater fish related to the Cod. It has a firm, lean flesh. Also called Cusk or Torsk.

 

 

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Whelk - A large marine snail that belongs to the mollusc family. The flavourful foot-like muscle is rather tough and can be tenderised by pounding.

 

Whitefish - A high-fat, mild-flavoured member of the Salmon family with a firm white flesh. The Whitefish can be poached, baked, broiled, grilled, pan fried, or stuffed. Its roe (eggs) can be cooked or made into caviar by adding salt.

 

Whiting - A small grey and white saltwater fish sometimes called the Silver Hake.  This low-fat fish, which is related to both the Cod and the Hake, has a tender white fine-textured flesh and a flaky, delicate flavour.

 

Wolf Fish - A firm, white-fleshed saltwater fish with a large head, strong jaws, and sharp canine teeth and molars that can grind Clams, Whelks, and other molluscs. Sometimes sold under the confusing name of Ocean Catfish.

 

Wrasse - The labrus species has many varieties, many of which are best used in soup. The name comes from the Latin for "lips". The best varieties can be baked or steamed.

 

 

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Yellowfin Tuna - These tuna reach about 150kg in weight. They feature a pale pink flesh that is relatively mild. Also called Ahi.

 

Yellowtail - A large game fish (up to 100kg) from the Jack family with a flavour and texture resembling Tuna. May be prepared in any manner suitable for Tuna.

 

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Zander - A large European freshwater fish – thought to be a Pike crossed with a Perch. Popular in central Europe but a voracious feeder which destroys other marine life.