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Making a Roux

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  Classification of Sauces
 

 

There are five principal classifications or types of sauce from which all other sauces are derived (made).

 

                                      Béchamel -    White sauce

                                      Veloute -        Thickened Stock

                                      Espagnole -    Brown Sauce

                                      Purée -            Vegetable or Fruit

                                      Jus Lie -          Stock / Cooking Juices

 

Béchamel

Béchamel is a white sauce, made with milk and thickened with a  roux.  Additionally, during the cooking process, a cloute onion will be added to enhance the flavour. This is a whole peeled onion which has two or three bay leaves attached to it using whole cloves.  This is added during the simmering time as the sauce cooks.

 

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Veloute

A veloute is made by thickening a stock with a blonde roux.  As a result a white stock will take a light brown colour when the roux is added.

 

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Espagnole

An espagnole is made using a brown stock with a brown roux to thicken it.  A traditional Sunday lunch gravy is a very basic example of an Espagnole when a stock made from cubes or concentrate is thickened with a  product like Bisto.  In reality, a true Espagnole will take considerably longer to make.

 

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Purée

Purees are the result of a fruit or vegetable being cooked or processed to a point where they lose structure and become a liquid.  This is then strained or forced through a sieve to give a thick liquid form of the primary ingredient.

 

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Jus Lie

Jus Lie is produced by thickening the reduced cooking juices or stock and thickening them with arrowroot

 

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  Béchamel

Veloute

Espagnole Purée Jus Lie
Roux White Blonde Brown None Arrowroot
Liquid Milk Stock Stock Stock Stock
Cooking Time 30-40 mins 45 mins 6 Hours 35-45 mins 2 hours
Derivates

Parsley

Onion

Cheese

Mustard

Egg

Anchovy

Chicken

Fish

Caper

Mushroom

Madeira

Demi Glace

Brown Onion

Chasseur

Piquant

Base for other sauces eg: Tomato puree for Pizza Topping, Chilli sauce etc. Can be used instead of demi glace