Thickening Agents

Sauce Classification

Cold Sauces

Making a Roux

Stock Recipes




A Stock is a liquid that has been formed  by extracting flavours, nutrients

and salts during the cooking process from Bones, Vegetables and Aromatic Herbs







Stocks should be:


     Clear in appearance

     Free of any fat

     Have a delicate flavour









When cooked, if not for immediate use, stocks must be strained and cooled within 90 minutes and stored in a fridge, stocks can be frozen.


Stocks must be re-boiled (for at least 2 minutes) after storage, prior to being used.


Stocks are one of the fundamental food products used in the kitchen. They are the basis of soups, sauces and gravies.

Great care is needed in producing a good stock and the following points can effect their quality:

Always use fresh vegetables and meat – sometimes the tendency is to throw any old bits and pieces into stock – this will only produce an inferior product and the stock may end up with an unpleasant flavour

Whilst the stock is simmering, the scum that comes to the surface needs to be removed, otherwise it will boil into the stock and impair the colour and flavour

Fat that is thrown to the surface also needs to be removed as this will make the stock taste greasy

Always simmer a stock rather than boil - boiling will make a stock cloudy

Keep a good eye on your stock to make sure it doesn’t go off the simmer – there is a danger of it going sour

Never add salt to stock - should you at later date need to reduce the stock down to a glace, it will be far too salty

If not using the stock straight away, strain it, reboil it for 2 minutes, cool quickly and store in a refrigerator and use within 2 days


Health, Safety & Hygiene

Stocks are high risk foods and bacteria will grow rapidly in the danger zone:

5 - 63ºc. They must therefore be cooled quickly – within 90 minutes of taking off the stove. To do this place in a blast chiller or place container in a sink full of running water, stirring frequently or rest the container on a stand in a cool place so that air can circulate.

  • Never reheat stocks more than once after re-boiling after straining

  • When taken from storage, stocks need to be boiled for at least 2 minutes

  • Ideally stocks should be made fresh daily and discarded at the end of the day

  • If stocks are not given the correct care and attention, particularly with regard to the soundness of ingredients used, they can easily become contaminated and a risk to health

  • Never store a stock above eye level as this could lead to an accident by someone spilling the contents over themselves

  • Great care should be taken when handling hot stock as there is a danger of scalding




Types of Stock


                  White Beef Stock

                  Brown Beef Stock

                  Chicken Stock

                  Fish Stock

                  Vegetable Stock




Common faults in stock production


              Stock Cloudy


                       Incorrect ingredients

                       Poorly prepared ingredients

                       Incorrect cooking

                       Not skimmed

                       Old stock



               Stock lacks flavour


                       Incorrect ratio of ingredients to liquid

                       Insufficient cooking                   



Stock Rules:


                  Always reboil stock for at least two minutes

                  Never season a stock

                  Once it has boiled reduce to a gently simmer

                  Never add starchy vegetables - potato, swede, turnip