Thickening Agents

Sauce Classification

Cold Sauces

Making a Roux


  Stock Recipes


General proportion of ingredients and methods for all stocks


White Meat Stock

Raw Bones 1kg

Water 5 litres

Onion, Carrot, Celery Leek 400g

Bouquet Garni

Peppercorns 12



Chop bones into small pieces, removing any fat or marrow

Place bones in pan (stockpot), cover with cold water and bring to the boil

Wash off the bones under cold water, clean the pot

Return the bones to the pan, cover with water and re-boil

Skim any scum that comes to the top and turn down to a simmer ( book says 2 hours but can be shorter time if required)

Wash, peel, roughly chop, re-wash and add to the pan the vegetables

Add bouquet garni and peppercorns

Simmer for 6 – 8 hours, skimming as and when required

Strain, cool quickly and refrigerate

This is the basic recipe for a white stock - for a brown stock the bones and vegetables are browned (roasted in the oven or in a pan on top) and don’t need a change of water. Tomatoes and mushroom trimmings can be added to improve the flavour.




White Vegetable Stock

100g Onion

100g Carrots

100g Celery

100g Leeks

100g 1 ½ litres water



Wash, peel, roughly chop and rewash the vegetables

Place all the ingredients into a saucepan, add the water, bring to the boil

Allow to simmer for approximately 1 hour

Skim if necessary. Strain and use

Can be used for a variety of soups and sauces where there is a vegetarian need

For a brown vegetable stock the vegetables are fried until golden brown and tomatoes and mushroom peeling added. Yeast extract (Marmite) can also be added.



Fish Stock

White fish bones 1kg

Margarine, butter or oil 25g

Onions 100g

Lemon, juice of ½


1 bay leaf

Parsley stalks

Water 2 ½ litres



Melt the margarine or butter in a thick bottomed pan

Add the sliced onions, the well washed fish bones and remainder of the ingredients except the water

Cover with greaseproof paper and a lid and sweat (cook gently without colouring) for 5 minutes

Add the water, bring to the boil, skim and simmer for 20 minutes, then strain

Longer cooking time will spoil the flavour